Introduction

During the past few years, the terms artificial intelligence and machine learning have begun showing up frequently in technology news and websites. Often the two are used as synonyms, but many experts argue that they have subtle but real differences.

And of course, the experts sometimes disagree among themselves about what those differences are.

In general, however, two things seem clear: first, the term artificial intelligence (AI) is older than the term machine learning (ML), and second, most people consider machine learning to be a subset of artificial intelligence.

Artificial Intelligence vs. Machine Learning

Though AI is defined in many ways, the most widely accepted definition being "the field of computer science dedicated to solving cognitive problems commonly associated with human intelligence, such as learning, problem solving, and pattern recognition", in essence, it is the idea that machines can possess intelligence.

The heart of an Artificial Intelligence based system is it's model. A model is nothing but a program that improves its knowledge through a learning process by making observations about its environment. This type of learning-based model is grouped under supervised Learning. There are other models which come under the category of unsupervised learning Models.

The phrase "machine learning" also dates back to the middle of the last century. In 1959, Arthur Samuel defined ML as "the ability to learn without being explicitly programmed." And he went on to create a computer checkers application that was one of the first programs that could learn from its own mistakes and improve its performance over time.

Like AI research, ML fell out of vogue for a long time, but it became popular again when the concept of data mining began to take off around the 1990s. Data mining uses algorithms to look for patterns in a given set of information. ML does the same thing, but then goes one step further - it changes its program's behavior based on what it learns.

One application of ML that has become very popular recently is image recognition. These applications first must be trained - in other words, humans have to look at a bunch of pictures and tell the system what is in the picture. After thousands and thousands of repetitions, the software learns which patterns of pixels are generally associated with horses, dogs, cats, flowers, trees, houses, etc., and it can make a pretty good guess about the content of images.

Many web-based companies also use ML to power their recommendation engines. For example, when Facebook decides what to show in your newsfeed, when Amazon highlights products you might want to purchase and when Netflix suggests movies you might want to watch, all of those recommendations are on based predictions that arise from patterns in their existing data.

Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning Frontiers: Deep Learning, Neural Nets, and Cognitive Computing

Of course, "ML" and "AI" aren't the only terms associated with this field of computer science. IBM frequently uses the term "cognitive computing," which is more or less synonymous with AI.

However, some of the other terms do have very unique meanings. For example, an artificial neural network or neural net is a system that has been designed to process information in ways that are similar to the ways biological brains work. Things can get confusing because neural nets tend to be particularly good at machine learning, so those two terms are sometimes conflated.

In addition, neural nets provide the foundation for deep learning, which is a particular kind of machine learning. Deep learning uses a certain set of machine learning algorithms that run in multiple layers. It is made possible, in part, by systems that use GPUs to process a whole lot of data at once.

If you're confused by all these different terms, you're not alone. Computer scientists continue to debate their exact definitions and probably will for some time to come. And as companies continue to pour money into artificial intelligence and machine learning research, it's likely that a few more terms will arise to add even more complexity to the issues.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Mohamed_Yunus_A_Vanathode/2597810

By Mohamed Yunus A Vanathode

http://EzineArticles.com/?Artificial-Intelligence-and-Machine-Learning-Basics&id=10019654

 

 

 

There is no dearth of talent in the app development industry. It seems that everyone is looking for the ways to earn big through applications. If you have an idea that can create a market demand, it can be the next super hit application that brings you money. The best option for building an application is to find an experienced one who can design what you are looking for. But the process is not easy at all. Freelance developers or companies can make your money flow in the direction. You have to check the right names that meet your demand completely.

If you are not knowledgeable enough for designing your application, you should not try it. Hire a freelancer instead who will take care of your business application and will give your dreams a right frame. Here are the ways that help you design an application as flawless as you expect.

Remember that risks are there in the app development industry. Unethical developers can rob your money without giving you an expected result. So, be aware of them and pick the best option for you. If you don't want to get trapped by their false promises, follow the tips that direct you to the success.

Describe clearly what you want:

It is more than just a description of your app. Mention complete things about your app in your app details. Don't miss anything, no matter how small they are. App developers design applications depending on their understanding. If they start with a misconception, the app will bring you no profit. So, give clear instructions to your chosen freelancer what you want from them. Make them understand what you expect from this application.

Get knowledge about what they know:

Since every developer is claiming to be the best, getting knowledge about their work area has become a crucial thing. You must ensure that they should offer what they are promising to you. Let them prove their claims. You have many ways to know whether they are trustworthy or not. Ask them to show their previous application sharing the same business field as yours. Know what their strategies will be if something goes wrong. Try to contact their previous clients and understand the working area.

Start with small things:

You must keep your application simple with essential details. You may have a complete idea about what your consumers want. But, including features makes navigation of an application complex. So, add only those things that meet your consumers' expectation. Start with small things and test your app. Go bigger with time and improve your offerings.

State a strict deadline and budget:

It is probably the most complex thing in the development process. Developers charge you for every single addition and change they make for your app. You only experience how money drains from you. When it comes to the deadline, they have a common tendency to broaden the timeline. Give them a strict period of time so that you can launch your application as per the expectation.

Test your app before you pay:

After payments, developers don't want to show interest in developing things further for your app. So test your app before you pay. No matter how practical and profitable their demo seems, you must test your application by yourself. It not only keeps your money on the right track but also improves your application on the users' interest. So, this is really an important step that needs to be executed carefully. If you want to change the design or any feature, ask an app developer to do so.

Your business application means a lot to you. So, design your application that solves users' problem and gives them a platform where they can find anything they want. Hire a professional who knows the technicalities of designing an application. Though there are companies specialized in the field, finding the trustworthy names is indeed the tough one. You can read about app development and its process to make a right decision for your company. Knowledge always makes you an expert.

The writer of the content is associated with the mobile development industry for many years. He works with some of the best teams and gets technical knowledge about iOS and Android applications.

By Vikash Singh

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Vikash_Singh/2335465

http://EzineArticles.com/?5-Best-Tips-to-Avoid-App-Developers-False-Claims&id=9979399

 

 

 

You will be forgiven for thinking that I am teaching you how to make illegal pirate copies of your software after reading the title above. Well rest assured I won't be walking the plank as this article is for information purposes only. As a programmer I understand how software piracy can hurt companies so I do not recommend it. There is plenty of good software that can be downloaded for free, especially if you don't need all the fancy features of expensive software. This article explains how people used to pirate software from retro computers such as the Spectrum and the Atari ST.

SPECTRUM AND COMMODORE 64

Spectrum and C64 software came on cassette tapes which were inserted into data recorders (or tape recorders) and could be loaded into memory by typing a command such as load"". These computers relied on a series of sound signals which were never pleasant to listen to as they were horrible screeching sounds. Quite often you would have to wait up to ten minutes (for a Spectrum 128k game especially) to load when it could crash, meaning you had to re-adjust the volume and start again. In case of a low recording, the game cassette would usually have a separate copy on the other side.

Most people could copy these games by using a hi-fi system with twin cassette decks. By inserting the original game cassette in the first deck and pressing "play", and inserting a blank cassette in the second deck and pressing "play and record" you could get a perfect copy. You could buy cassette tapes for saving data such as a C15 which allows you to record up to fifteen minutes. Some people would use a C90 which would allow them to store many games at once.

If you didn't have access to twin cassette decks then you could use software. On the Spectrum you could use something like "007Spy" which would allow you to load the entire game into memory and then back up onto a blank cassette. Some games had different ways of loading such as the pulsing (or clicking) loaders, a method used by many Ocean Software games. This led to the release of other software capable of tackling these loaders. The average Spectrum game would consist of a short piece of code (the header), a loading screen and the main code. This is the standard loader, easy to copy.

When the Spectrum 128k +3 was released it came with a built in floppy disk drive. As there were only so many games released on +3 disks, methods were used to transfer them from tape to disk. The standard loader was easy. All you had to do was type merge"" to get into the editor code and save that to a +3 disk (save"a:program-name"). Next you would load the loading screen higher into memory (load "screen-name" code 30000) and save that to a +3 disk. Finally you would do the same thing with the main code and add the load commands to the main header code.

For the more complicated loaders a suite of programs called "007 Trans-Master" was used to convert the files into the standard format so they could be saved to +3 disks.

ATARI ST AND AMIGA

The great thing about the Atari ST and Amiga computers was that you could lay your hands on hundreds of pieces of free software, no need to pirate commercial software. There were many PDLs (Public Domain Libraries) who would distribute free software for the price of a disk and postage, and for their distribution work. The actual software is free and covers anything from demos to games and pictures to music files. There was also the shareware method where you pay a small subscription fee to receive extras for full versions of the software and licenceware where the PDL would offer a small commission to the original contributor.

Atari ST software was normally copied using dedicated disk copiers such as "Fast Copy" while the Amiga used the popular "X-Copy". However some disks were protected and therefore other more powerful copying software had to be used.

PROTECTION METHODS

Software publishers have used many forms of production to deter copying such as the more complicated loaders on the Spectrum. Other methods would require the user entering a word or letter from the manual before they could get into the game, or choosing a series of colors or symbols from their book to match the ones on screen. Some games allow you to think you have copied them until you have played them for so long and notice some nasty surprise. The game "Shadow of the Beast" turns the screen upside down on certain levels for example.

This lead to the rise of Cracking Groups such as the famous "Pompey Pirates" on the Atari ST who would hack into the game and remove the copy protection. They would then release a number of games (hacked and packed) onto a single floppy disk which were passed around to various users.

CONCLUSION

The battle between software publishers and pirates is an on-going one and people will always want free software if they can get it. Old retro software is freely available for download on various websites for people who want to re-live the old days so there is little need to copy them from originals. I am not going to tell you how to copy the latest PC software. I only wrote this article to explain how people used to back up their software for the older systems. I stated that there is a lot of free and in-expensive software available for the PC and I urge you to use that rather than resort to piracy.

Dean Sharples is a writer and programmer with many years experience. He has written articles on subjects such as Home Business, Retro, Religion and Programming. He is a Muslim and comes from Manchester, UK. You can find out more about Dean at: http://www.deansharples.com

By Dean Sharples

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/expert/Dean_Sharples/2602391

http://EzineArticles.com/?How-People-Used-To-Pirate-Retro-Software&id=10026617

 

 

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